Introduction to Film

10100
ARTH 20000,ENGL 10800,ARTV 25300
  • Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
J. Lastra

This course introduces basic concepts of film analysis, which are discussed through examples from different national cinemas, genres, and directorial oeuvres. Along with questions of film technique and style, we consider the notion of the cinema as an institution that comprises an industrial system of production, social and aesthetic norms and codes, and particular modes of reception. Films discussed include works by Hitchcock, Porter, Griffith, Eisenstein, Lang, Renoir, Sternberg, and Welles.

Film and the Moving Image

14400
  • Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
M. Hubbell

This course seeks to develop skills in perception, comprehension, and interpretation when dealing with film and other moving image media. It encourages the close analysis of audiovisual forms, their materials and formal attributes, and explores the range of questions and methods appropriate to the explication of a given film or moving image text. It also examines the intellectual structures basic to the systematic study and understanding of moving images. Most importantly, the course aims to foster in students the ability to translate this understanding into verbal expression, both oral and written. Texts and films are drawn from the history of narrative, experimental, animated, and documentary or non-fiction cinema. Screenings are a mandatory course component. This course is intended for non-majors. Cinema and Media Studies majors should instead take Introduction to Film, CMST 10100.

Media Ecology

25204
HIPS 25203, HUMA 25202, LLSO 27801, TAPS 28452
  • Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
M. Browning

Media ecology examines how the structure and content of our media environments – online and offline, in words, images, sounds, and textures – affect human perception, understanding, feeling, and value; or alternatively, media ecology investigates the massive and dynamic interrelation of processes and objects, beings and things, patterns and matter. At stake are issues about agency – human or material – and about determinism – how does society or culture interact with or shape its technologies, or vice versa? This course investigates theories of media ecology by exploring systems of meanings that humans embody (cultural, social, ecological) in conjunction with the emerging field of software studies about the cultural, political, social, and aesthetic impacts of software (e.g., code, interaction, interface). In our actual and virtual environments, how do we understand performing our multiple human embodiments in relation to other bodies (organism or machine) in pursuit of social or political goals?

Reading Madness

28902
ENGL 28704
  • Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
W.J.T. Mitchell

This course will address the representation of madness in a variety of literary forms, including poetry, fiction, memoir, and drama.  Authors considered may include Blake, Holderlin, Dostoevsky, Ralph Ellison, Antonin Artaud, William Styron, Virginia Woolf, Sylvia Plath, and Elyn Sacks.  Theoretical readings will be drawn from Foucault’s History of Madness and selections from Freud and Lacan.  The aim will be to investigate the way literature attempts to “perform” as well as represent various states of cognitive and emotional extremity in language.  There will also be some attention to cinematic and pictorial renderings of madness.

Senior Colloquium

29800
  • Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
J. Stewart

This seminar is designed to provide fourth-year students with a sense of the variety of methods and approaches in the field (e.g., formal analysis, cultural history, industrial history, reception studies, psychoanalysis). Students present material related to their BA project, which is discussed in relation to the issues of the course.

Documentary Production 1

23930
33930
ARTV 23930, ARTV 33930, HMRT 25106, HMRT 35106
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
J. Hoffman

This class is intended to develop skills in documentary production so that students may apply for Documentary Production II. Documentary Production I focuses on the making of independent documentary video. Examples of various styles of documentary will be screened and discussed. Issues embedded in the documentary genre, such as the ethics and politics of representation and the shifting lines between fact and fiction will be explored. Pre-production methodologies, production, and post-production techniques will be taught. Students will be expected to develop an idea for a documentary video, crews will be formed, and each crew will produce a five-minute documentary. Students will also be expected to purchase an external hard drive.

Agnès Varda

26810
36810
FNDL 26506, GNSE 26810/36810, FREN 26811/36811
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
D. Bluher

This course examines the work of one of the most significant directors working in France today. From the 1960s to the present day, Varda’s films have been crucial to the development of new film practices: both in the past – as with the birth of the French New Wave Cinema – and in the present by exploring new forms of visual narration and by working with moving images in gallery spaces. PQ: Students taking the class for French credit should complete written assignments (and readings as applicable) in French.

Digital Media Theory

37803
ENGL 32313
  • Graduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
P. Jagoda
This course introduces students to the critical study of digital media and participatory cultures, focusing on the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Subfields and topics may include history of technology, software studies, platform studies, videogame studies, electronic literature, social media, mobile media, network aesthetics, hacktivism, and digital publics. We will also think about ways that new media theory has intersected with, ignored, and complicated work coming from critical theory, especially transnational, feminist, Marxist, and queer theory. Readings may include work by theorists such as Ian Bogost, Wendy Chun, Alexander Galloway, Mark Hansen, Katherine Hayles, Friedrich Kittler, Alan Liu, Lev Manovich, Franco Moretti, Lisa Nakamura, Rita Raley, and McKenzie Wark.  
Through a study of contemporary media theory, we will also think carefully about emerging methods of inquiry that accompany this area of study, including multimodal and practice-based research. In addition to short assignments, students will focus on a final project that will take the form of either an experimental research paper or a creative digital media piece with included commentary (e.g., a piece of electronic fiction, a Machinima film, a digital visualization, a Game Design Document, or a videogame). Students need not be technologically gifted or savvy, but a wide-ranging imagination and interest in new media culture will make for a more exciting quarter.

Video Art: The Analog Years. Theory, Technology, Practice

28703
38703
ARTH 21313, ARTH 31313
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
I. Blom

The course gives a critical introduction to early video and television art – from the proto-televisual impulses in the historical avant-gardes to the increasing proximity between analog and digital technologies in video art in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. We will focus on the various technical aspects of analog video, as well as on artistic practice and early writings on the subject. Topics may include the technics and politics of time; video, feedback systems and ecology; the reconfiguration of the artist’s studio; guerilla politics and alternative TV; video and autobiography; the relation between video and painting; the musical history of video; the invention of new machines; and video as a “television viewer”.

Methods and Issues

40000
ARTH 39900, ENGL 48000, MAPH 33000
  • Graduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
Staff

This course offers an introduction to ways of reading, writing on, and teaching film. The focus of discussion will range from methods of close analysis and basic concepts of film form, technique and style; through industrial/critical categories of genre and authorship (studios, stars, directors); through aspects of the cinema as a social institution, psycho-sexual apparatus and cultural practice; to the relationship between filmic texts and the historical horizon of production and reception. Films discussed will include works by Griffith, Lang, Hitchcock, Deren, Godard.

Media Archeology vs Media Aesthetics

47801
ARTH 41313
  • Graduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
Blom, Ina

The course stages an encounter between media archeology and media aesthetics, two distinct but related research perspectives that are at times seen as incommensurable approaches to the media technological environment. Media archeology focuses on the non-human agencies and complex machinic arrangements that are at work in technologies whose microtemporal operations cannot be grasped by human perception: media archeology typically refuses phenomenological approaches. In contrast, media aesthetics focuses on the phenomenological interface between machine systems and human perception and sensation, and various forms of cultural and political negotiations of a lifeworld that is increasingly dominated by technologies that both store and produce time. We will read key texts from both fields and discuss how we may understand their differences as well as their points of intersection.

History of International Film, Part I: Silent Era

28500
48500
ARTH 28500,ARTH 38500,CMLT 22400,CMLT 32400,CMST 48500,ENGL 29300,ENGL 48700,MAPH 33600,ARTV 26500,ARTV 36500
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
Y. Tsivian

This course introduces what was singular about the art and craft of silent film. Its general outline is chronological. We also discuss main national schools and international trends of filmmaking.

Birth of a Nation

61101
AMER 61101
  • Graduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
J. Stewart

This seminar explores the history and resonance of D. W. Griffith’s epic Birth of a Nation, 100 years after its release in 1915.  Based on Thomas Dixon’s novels The Leopard’s Spots (1902) and The Clansman (1905) and their theatrical adaptations, the film’s landmark stylistic innovations, unprecedented publicity and box office performance, and heavily protested representations of U.S. slavery and its aftermath have generated critical questions about the relationships between politics and film aesthetics that continue to animate our understanding of the “power” of the moving image.  We will explore the film’s style and its popular and critical reception, and the challenges it poses for film historiography.  We will examine the film within Griffith’s oevre (including his previous antebellum and Civil War dramas like His Trust and His Trust Fulfilled [1911]), and subsequent works including Intolerance (1916), his reflection on the Birth’s contentious circulation.  Topics explored include uses of blackface in the silent era; strategies of literary adaptation; the Dunning school of the Reconstruction era and critical responses (e.g., W. E. B. Du Bois and others); the careers of the film’s cast and crew; film censorship and protest (particularly as organized by the NAACP); silent film historiography and Birth’s prominent place in it; cinematic responses to the film, especially by African American filmmakers, from Emmett Scott’s Birth of a Race (1918) to Oscar Micheaux’s Within Our Gates (1920) to Spike Lee’s Bamboozled (2000).

Deleuze, Philosophy and the Image

67205
SCTH 50800
  • Graduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016
D.N. Rodowick

The Image is a concept that returns and varies across Gilles Deleuze’s philosophical works.  In this seminar, we will work through Deleuze’s characterization of the Image in its varying forms—image of thought, thought without image, movement-image, time-image, the visible and the expressible, Idea and percept, and sensation and figure, among others.  Of special concern will be Deleuze’s arguments concerning the relation of philosophy to art.  Readings will include selections from Proust and Signs, Difference and Repetition, Foucault, Cinema 1 and Cinema 2, Logic of Sensation, What is Philosophy?, and perhaps other texts.  Reading knowledge of French is recommended but not required.

Pedagogy: The Way We Teach Film

69900
  • Graduate
  • Autumn
  • 2015-2016

This course, spread across the year, is an introduction to pedagogical methods in the field, intended for CMS PhD students. Open to Cinema and Media graduate students only.

Introduction to Film

10100
  • Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
J. Schonig

This course introduces basic concepts of film analysis, which are discussed through examples from different national cinemas, genres, and directorial oeuvres. Along with questions of film technique and style, we consider the notion of the cinema as an institution that comprises an industrial system of production, social and aesthetic norms and codes, and particular modes of reception. Films discussed include works by Hitchcock, Porter, Griffith, Eisenstein, Lang, Renoir, Sternberg, and Welles.

Film and the Moving Image

14400
  • Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
S. Skvirsky

This course seeks to develop skills in perception, comprehension, and interpretation when dealing with film and other moving image media. It encourages the close analysis of audiovisual forms, their materials and formal attributes, and explores the range of questions and methods appropriate to the explication of a given film or moving image text. It also examines the intellectual structures basic to the systematic study and understanding of moving images. Most importantly, the course aims to foster in students the ability to translate this understanding into verbal expression, both oral and written. Texts and films are drawn from the history of narrative, experimental, animated, and documentary or non-fiction cinema. Screenings are a mandatory course component. 

Film Comedy

14504
  • Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
X. Dong

What can film tell us about comedy, and vice versa? This course investigates the comic procedures in various film forms - from silent slapstick and sophisticated comedy to screwball comedy and musical all the way to postmodern pastiche and mockumentary. Instead of treating film comedy as a self-contained genre, we will study how questions of comedy are central to the history of cinema. Readings include critical discourses about comedy, film history and film theory, e.g. Bergson, Freud, Benjamin, Miriam Hansen, Tom Gunning and Noel Carroll. It is often said that a joke dies when we analyze it. We will see that it in fact reincarnates, if we analyze it the right way. 

From Bombay Cinema to Bollywood

24107
ARTH 20000,ENGL 10800,ARTV 25300
  • Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
R. Majumdar

This course maps the transformation of the Hindi film industry in India.  Starting out as a regional film production center, how did the Bombay film industry and Hindi cinema gain the reputation of being the leader of Indian cinema?  This despite the fact that most critical acclaim, by the state and film critics, was reserved for “art cinema.”  Through an analysis of Hindi films from the 1950s to the present we map the main trends of this complex artistic/ industrial complex to arrive at an understanding of the deep connect between cinema and other social imaginaries.  

Digital Storytelling

25945
ENGL 25945
  • Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
Patrick Jagoda

This course investigates the ways that new media have changed contemporary society and the cultural narratives that shape it. We will explore narrative theory through a number of digital or digitally-inflected forms, including cyberpunk fictions, text adventure games, interactive dramas, videogames, virtual worlds, transmedia novels, location-based fictions, and alternate reality games. Our critical study will concern issues such as nonlinear narrative, network aesthetics, and videogame mechanics. Throughout the quarter, our analysis of computational fictions will be haunted by gender, class, race, and other ghosts in the machine.

Creative Thesis

23905
33905
ARTV 23905, ARTV 33905
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
J. Hoffman

This seminar will focus on how to craft a creative thesis in film or video. Works-in-progress will be screened each week, and technical and structural issues relating to the work will be explored. The workshop will also develop the written portion of the creative thesis. The class is limited to seniors from CMS and DOVA, and MAPH students working on a creative thesis.

Documentary Production 2

23931
33931
ARTV 23931, ARTV 33931, HMRT 25107, HMRT 35107
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
J. Hoffman

This course focuses on the shaping and crafting of a nonfiction video. Students are expected to write a treatment detailing their project. Production techniques focus on the handheld camera versus tripod, interviewing and microphone placement, and lighting for the interview. Postproduction covers editing techniques and distribution strategies. Students then screen final projects in a public space.

Russian Cinema

24505
34505
REES 26048/36048
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
R. Bird

Russian cinema occupies an important and distinctive place within world film culture. It rose to prominence in the 1920s through the revolutionary (in all senses) films and film theory of Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, Dziga Vertov and others and maintained its distinction through the early years of socialist realism, a unique media system in which film was recognized, in Lenin’s saying, as “the most important of the arts.” After Stalin’s death Russian film re-captivated its revolutionary energy amidst the “Soviet new wave,” characterized by the films of Mikhail Kalatozov, Sergei Paradzhanov and Andrei Tarkovsky. In recent years film has continued to play a crucial role in defining and animating a post-Soviet cultural identity, both through poetic filmmakers as Aleksandr Sokurov and through genre films. We will survey this history, from 1917 right up to the present moment, with a selection of the most energizing films and theoretical writings by their makers. We will examine how a national style gets established and maintained; how film form and film style have responded to the pressures of ideology and power; how film art has served both as a tool of colonialization and identity-formation; and how film artists have negotiated the pressures of cultural tradition (including that of the Russian novel) and the world film market.

Framing the I: Autobiography and Film

25531
35531
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
D. Bluher

This course focuses on the shaping and crafting of a nonfiction video. Students are expected to write a treatment detailing their project. Production techniques focus on the handheld camera versus tripod, interviewing and microphone placement, and lighting for the interview. Postproduction covers editing techniques and distribution strategies. Students then screen final projects in a public space.

Contemporary Film Theory 1: Ideology and Critique

27240
37240
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
D. Rodowick

This two part course provides a critical and historical survey of the major questions, concepts, and trends in film theory since 1968.  Contemporary Film Theory I will examine theories of ideology and cinema, political modernism, and counter-cinema through the critical reading of important texts and films from Latin America, France, and the United Kingdom.

MEDIA AESTHETICS 2.0: Image/Sound/Text

27800
37800
ENGL 12810, ENGL 32810
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
W.J.T. Mitchell

History 2

28600
48600
ARTH 28600,ARTH 38600,CMLT 22500,CMLT 32500, ENGL 29600,ENGL 48900,MAPH 33700,ARTV 26600
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
D. Morgan

The center of this course is film style, from the classical scene breakdown to the introduction of deep focus, stylistic experimentation, and technical innovation (sound, wide screen, location shooting). The development of a film culture is also discussed. Texts include Thompson and Bordwell's Film History: An Introduction; and works by Bazin, Belton, Sitney, and Godard. Screenings include films by Hitchcock, Welles, Rossellini, Bresson, Ozu, Antonioni, and Renoir.

Cinema, Play, Modernity

67504
  • Graduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
X. Dong

In this seminar we explore the idea of an international “ludic cinema” in the first half of the twentieth century. Our goal is two-fold: on the one hand, we will identify the trajectory of a ludic modernism in film history by rereading canons and introducing underexposed films; on the other hand, we will examine the interdisciplinary writings on the notion of play, ranging from anthropology and psychology to education and literary studies, through the prism of cinematic modernity. Readings include seminal texts by Walter Benjamin, Johan Huizinga, Roger Caillois, D. W. Winnicott, and Gregory Bateson, as well as more recent scholarly works by Miriam Hansen, Bill Brown, David Bordwell and Kristine Thompson. Films include early short and experimental films, city symphonies, American slapstick comedies, and films by Ernst Lubitsch, Jean Renoir, Frank Capra, Fei Mu, Yasujiro Ozu, and Jacques Tati.

Style and Performance from Stage to Screen

68400
  • Graduate
  • Winter
  • 2015-2016
Y. Tsivian

Introduction to Film

10100
ARTH 20000,ENGL 10800,ARTV 25300
  • Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
M. Kressbach

This course introduces basic concepts of film analysis, which are discussed through examples from different national cinemas, genres, and directorial oeuvres. Along with questions of film technique and style, we consider the notion of the cinema as an institution that comprises an industrial system of production, social and aesthetic norms and codes, and particular modes of reception. Films discussed include works by Hitchcock, Porter, Griffith, Eisenstein, Lang, Renoir, Sternberg, and Welles.

Film and the Moving Image

14400
  • Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
D. Morgan

This course seeks to develop skills in perception, comprehension, and interpretation when dealing with film and other moving image media. It encourages the close analysis of audiovisual forms, their materials and formal attributes, and explores the range of questions and methods appropriate to the explication of a given film or moving image text. It also examines the intellectual structures basic to the systematic study and understanding of moving images. Most importantly, the course aims to foster in students the ability to translate this understanding into verbal expression, both oral and written. Texts and films are drawn from the history of narrative, experimental, animated, and documentary or non-fiction cinema. Screenings are a mandatory course component.

This course meets the general education requirement in the dramatic, musical and visual arts.

Film and the Moving Image

14400
  • Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
R. Neer

This course seeks to develop skills in perception, comprehension, and interpretation when dealing with film and other moving image media. It encourages the close analysis of audiovisual forms, their materials and formal attributes, and explores the range of questions and methods appropriate to the explication of a given film or moving image text. It also examines the intellectual structures basic to the systematic study and understanding of moving images. Most importantly, the course aims to foster in students the ability to translate this understanding into verbal expression, both oral and written. Texts and films are drawn from the history of narrative, experimental, animated, and documentary or non-fiction cinema. Screenings are a mandatory course component. 

Cinema in Theory and Practice

14503
  • Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
D. Bluher

The course proposes an introduction to audio-visual literacy through the analysis of films, selective readings, and short film exercises focusing on fundamental cinematic elements such as shot, framing, point of view, camera movement, editing, and relations of image and sound. Assignments will consist in in writing review sheets and a formal film analysis, and in creating 1-3 minute single-shot movies based on the works seen and discussed in class.

Margins of the Medium: Text/Image

14507
  • Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
J. Wild

In this class, we will study  nineteenth and twentieth-century visual and written texts from primarily French photographic, literary, painterly, and cinematic traditions. These thematically interrogate spatial, cultural, geographic, social, and political margins.  By also examining the long-standing and often fraught historical and theoretical relationship between text and image, we will simultaneously investigate the boundaries between divergent media practices (photography, literature, film, painting) in order to question the visual, narrative, and philosophic limits of representation.

Poetics of Visual Style in Postwar Eastern Europe

24506
  • Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
Z. Mandusic

This course will study the visual styles of postwar Eastern European film movements of the 1950s and 60s as a set of aesthetic responses to changing political and social circumstances. While these stylistic trends were shaped by their respective national traditions, they exhibit a common pursuit of cinematographic innovation in search of new means to pose relevant questions and engage the audience. Across Eastern Europe during these decades, film emerged as an important medium for social and political critique. The region’s national cinemas increasingly began to produce polemical films that confronted the ideological narratives and images of Communist governments. Filmmakers across Eastern Europe were connected by their drive to reform socialism and cinema as an institution. Seeking to drastically redefine cinema’s hitherto de facto role as exponent of state propaganda, filmmakers pursued new ways to represent and interrogate the contemporary and historical experiences of their countrymen. This goal necessitated either revising or formulating alternatives to the dominant style of Communist art—Socialist Realism. In order to do this, some filmmakers turned to older strategies of the Avant-Garde while others explored the potentials of new conceptual and technological innovations. Based on these developments, this course will investigate the range of visual strategies exploited by postwar Eastern European film movements and how these were exploited to revise collective memories of the recent past, draw attention to everyday reality, expose totalitarian abuses, and assert the value of individuality. Films across the region will be used to identify and analyze these methods, while primary and secondary texts will serve to better understand their historical context.

Issues in Film Sound

28003
  • Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
J. Lastra

Cities in Sinophone Cinema

24611
34611
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
X. Dong

From the treaty port of Shanghai to the imperial capital of Beijing, from the “re-colonized” city of Taipei to the “floating city” of Hong Kong, and from an anonymous city in inland China to global Chinatowns, cities in Chinese-language cinemas at once reflect and participate in the historical transformations of modern China and the negotiation between national, local and cosmopolitan identities. Meanwhile, throughout its history, the motion-picture medium has shown an affinity with the city as an audio-visual ensemble, which in turn has provided constant inspiration for cinematic experimentation. Taking the chronotope of the “sinophone city” as an entry point, this course participates in both the on-going discussion of cinematic cities and the emerging discourse on the phonic articulation and visual mediation of a global sinophone culture. No knowledge of Chinese is required.

D. W. Griffith

26405
36405
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
Y. Tsivian

Film Aesthetics

27205
37205
PHIL 20208, PHIL 30208
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
R. Pippin; J. Conant

The main questions to be discussed are: the bearing of cinema on philosophy; or in what sense, if any, is cinema a form of philosophical thought? What sort of distinctive aesthetic object is a film, or what is the “ontology” of film? What, in particular, distinguishes a “realist” narrative film? What is a “Hollywood” film? What is a Hollywood genre? Authors to be read include, among others, Bazin, Cavell, Perkins, Wilson, Rothman. Films to be seen and discussed, among others, include films by Bresson, Ford, Ophuls, Cukor, Hitchcock, and the Dardenne brothers.

Movement

27206
37206
  • Graduate/Undergraduate
  • Spring
  • 2015-2016
D. Morgan

Movement is central to the history of cinema, from its earliest origins and antecedents to the GoPro and related videos that currently populate.YouTube, and to the history of thinking about it. This course investigates the various ways in which movement has appeared and been talked about. Combining philosophical, critical, and historical readings with careful analysis of films, we will cover topics that include the appeal of moving image itself, movement that exists within the world shown in the frame, problems posed by the history of camera movement, and different technologies for recording and producing movement. Readings will include Bergson, Eisenstein, Merleau-Ponty, McLaren, Michotte, Deleuze, and Gunning; films will be from the Lumière Brothers, Murnau, Renoir, Mizoguchi, Ophuls, Breer, Gehr, Raimi, Malick, and others.

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